What's a Composite Material?

January 2024
Anton White

In the world of outdoor decking, understanding "what's a composite material" is key to unlocking a realm of durability, style, and sustainability. In short, composite materials are a blend of two or more materials. But there’s a lot more to it than that.

At Ovaeda, we've seen how these innovative materials transform outdoor spaces, blending the natural charm of wood with the resilience of synthetics. This article will guide you through the essence of composite materials, their composition, and their transformative role in decking.

As we delve deeper, you'll discover the unique properties and diverse applications that make composites a top choice for outdoor enthusiasts and professionals alike.

What this article covers:

What Is a Composite Material?

In our journey at Ovaeda, we've come to understand that a composite material is much more than a mere blend; it's a strategic combination of two or more materials, each bringing its unique physical and chemical properties to the table.

When these materials are combined, they create a super material, tailored for specific tasks such as gaining strength, becoming lighter, or even gaining resistance to electricity.

It's a fascinating process of enhancing the innate properties of base materials to meet specific, often demanding applications. Think of it as a team where each member contributes their best qualities to achieve a goal that would be impossible alone.

What Are Composite Materials Made Of?

According to our research, they’re essentially a marriage of divergent materials, each chosen for its beneficial properties. The matrix, acting as the bonding agent, is often a polymer, but can also be a ceramic or metal.

This matrix binds the reinforcement, typically a fibre component like carbon, glass, or Kevlar fibres. Interestingly, natural fibres are increasingly being integrated into composites, adding a touch of nature's ingenuity to these man-made materials.

This combination results in a material that leverages the strength of the fibres and the stability of the matrix, creating something truly superior.

How Are Composite Materials Made?

Our hands-on experience has shown that the manufacturing of composite materials is an art in itself, varying significantly based on the desired outcome. Commonly, materials like glass, carbon, and Kevlar fibres are bonded with resins.

In the case of carbon fibre, for instance, the strands are pre-impregnated with a heat-activated resin. These are then laid onto a mould, compressed, and heated. This process activates the resin, which first liquifies to coat every fibre, and then hardens into a rigid, durable form.

It's a meticulous process that transforms flexible fibres into a solid, robust material.

What Are The Properties Of Composite Materials?

At Ovaeda, we've seen firsthand the remarkable properties of composite materials. They boast an impressive strength-to-weight ratio, making them incredibly strong yet surprisingly lightweight.

Their impact resistance and chemical/environmental stability are also noteworthy. These materials can be engineered for specific needs, like high chemical stability or environmental resilience, thanks to the careful selection of matrix materials and non-absorbent, non-hygroscopic reinforcement fibres.

Their versatility extends to tailored electrical and thermal conductivity, making them suitable for a wide range of applications.

How Are Composite Materials Different From Plastics?

Diving deeper into the composition, we've noticed that composite materials stand apart from plastics in their complexity and strength. Unlike plastics, which are typically formed from a single polymer injection, composites are always a combination of two or more co-processed materials.

what is a composite material

This synergy results in properties that surpass those of the individual components. Composites are inherently more complex to manufacture, but this complexity pays off.

They are generally much stronger than equivalent plastic parts, allowing them to offer higher strength and reduced weight. This distinction is crucial in applications where durability and lightness are paramount.

In essence, while plastics are versatile and useful in their own right, composites take material engineering to a whole new level, providing enhanced performance where it matters most.

Types of Composite Materials

From our extensive experience, here are some common types of composite materials:

  • Nanocomposites: Nanocomposites include man-made and naturally occurring materials where the reinforcer is a nanomaterial like carbon nanotubes or graphene added to a polymer matrix.
  • Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs): These use a metal matrix like aluminium or magnesium and a high-strength fibre reinforcer in particle or whisker form.
  • Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs): The most prevalent form, encompassing hand lay-up of carbon fibre and glass fibre fabrics with epoxies and polyester resins forming the matrix.
  • Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymers (GFRPs): A subset of PMCs, specific to epoxy and polyester bonded glass fibre materials.
  • Hybrid Composites: These integrate two or more different reinforcing fibres into the final material, like a combination of glass and carbon fibre.


  • Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs): Consisting of a ceramic matrix and reinforcing fibres, these offer extreme temperature and corrosion resistance.
  • Natural Fiber Composites (NFCs): Utilizing natural fibres like jute, flax, cotton, and wood in various applications.
  • Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRPs): Another subset of PMCs, specific to epoxy and polyester-bonded carbon fibres.
  • Aramid Fiber Reinforced Polymers (AFRPs): Employing aramid as the reinforcer, these composites are used in high-impact applications.
  • Functionally Graded Composites (FGCs): These materials have constituent parts modified through the structure to tune performance.

Examples of Composite Materials

In our line of work, we've seen various examples of composite materials, such as:

Composite Decking

Composite decking is a prime example of how composite materials revolutionize outdoor living spaces. What composite decking is made of is a synergistic blend of wood fibres and plastic, offering the natural beauty of wood without its high maintenance demands.

The result is a decking solution that stands up to the elements, resists fading, and doesn't splinter or warp like traditional wood. It's an ideal choice for those who love the look of wood but prefer a more durable and low-maintenance option.

Carbon Fibre

Carbon fibre is a superstar in the world of high-performance materials. Renowned for its exceptional strength-to-weight ratio, it's a go-to material for applications where every gram counts.

You'll find carbon fibre in high-end sports equipment, from racing bicycles to golf clubs, where its ability to provide strength without adding weight is invaluable.

In the automotive industry, carbon fibre is used in body parts and frames of high-performance vehicles, contributing to their speed and efficiency.


Fibreglass, a composite material made from fine glass fibres woven into a cloth and then bonded with a plastic resin, is celebrated for its strength and lightweight nature. It's a common sight in boat hulls, where its resistance to water and durability make it an excellent choice. 


Additionally, fibreglass is used in automotive body parts, offering a lightweight yet robust alternative to metal panels. Its versatility also extends to building materials and various everyday products, proving its adaptability and usefulness.

Engineered Wood

Engineered wood is a testament to the ingenuity of composite materials in traditional industries. Products like plywood, made by glueing together thin layers of wood veneer, demonstrate enhanced strength and stability compared to solid wood.

This is due to the cross-graining technique, which reduces the tendency of wood to split and improves its strength and consistency.

How Can You Use Composite Materials?

Composite materials have a wide range of applications. In our field, composite decking is a prime example, offering the aesthetics of wood with the durability and low maintenance of synthetics.

It’s also incredibly versatile, meaning that you can create a whole decking structure and then still use the composite decking offcuts for various smaller projects.

Composite materials are also used in automotive parts for lightweight and strength, in aerospace for high-performance components, and in sports equipment for enhanced durability and performance.

what is composite material


Composite materials are a game-changer in various industries, including outdoor decking. Their unique properties, such as high strength-to-weight ratio and durability, make them an ideal choice for many uses.

As experts in outdoor decking, we at Ovaeda have seen firsthand the benefits of composite materials in providing long-lasting, beautiful, and low-maintenance decking solutions. The future of composites is bright, with ongoing innovations promising even more exciting possibilities. 

If you’re looking for premium-quality composite materials for all your outdoor needs, Ovaeda can help. From composite cladding to outdoor balustrades, we’ve got you covered.

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